Script Image Posted September 23, 2014; Text on Page Last Updated December 24, 2015:


Thank you for participating in golf.  With rising costs to maintain courses, fewer individuals can afford to practice on a consistent basis, and only professionals can take home the million dollar cash prize.  Our approach is to give more players access to the jackpot aspect, along with other alternatives – this calls for combining traditional elements of the sport with pinball, shooting gallery, mini-golf, casino, and carnival / arcade games.

To build a golf course in this fashion requires an area roughly the size of a practice / driving range, and current facilities could be retrofitted with the adjustments to be discussed henceforth.  This course contains however many holes the designer would prefer, some of which the ball funnels into easily from a given radius, whereas with others the hole is situated on a steep incline for higher difficulty.  Also, there needs to be an “out of bounds” lane, which any shots not ending up in a goal funnel into, similar to a “gutter ball” in bowling.  Wherever each ball goes, the score is recorded with an automated counter, similar to the way coins are tallied by machines; it is tabulated based on which hole the ball went through, on the way back to a central ball repository, such as with the apparatus used at the 18th hole in mini-golf.  In other words a series of tubes transports each ball and adds up the score.

From this foundation the object of the game can be modified in different modes:

JACKPOT MODE – In order to take home the million dollar cash prize a player must hit his or her ball into a hole location very challenging and unlikely to connect.  Players pay a fixed price for each attempt, similar to a slot machine, and the jackpot rises after each ball; the million dollar estimate may end up less or more in practice, based on how frequently the goal is achieved.  In terms of potential variations:
– Jackpot hole being available at all times vs. only every so often, as with pinball, needing to hit a sequence of targets to unlock the goal, with limited time before progress is reset.
– Smaller payouts for hitting intermediate objectives (instead of just one main jackpot), where each missed ball adds to the prize pool in different sections, based on where it lands, certain areas being more difficult / valuable.
– Every one on the course operating as an individual vs. players splitting the prize pool – for solo scoring keep track of who wins via colored ball and / or camera to trace shot trajectories, giving customers the option to obtain a copy of the video as a souvenir.

COMPETITION MODE – The object of the game is to outscore your opponent(s) – i.e., tournament format, with prize payouts for finishing on the leader board, etc.  Potential variations / mods (some can be used in combination, whereas others are mutually exclusive):
– Players get a certain number of shots to hit as many targets as possible, earning a score based on difficulty of the goals vs. who completes all holes with the least number of shots needed.
– Individual scoring vs. teams; also whether teammates all play the course simultaneously with competitors, where shots cancel each other out, etc.
– Goals open for a limited time after hitting certain targets, along with score “multipliers.”
– Capturing “zones” by hitting the ball into a certain area, claiming that zone until an opponent lands there to reclaim for themselves (points awarded for each zone you have in your team’s possession per round, for instance).
– Battle / attack mode – targeting opponents’ fortress, ship, etc. – i.e., target destroyed after enough hits, vs. having to hit all specific points of the target.
– Shooting gallery – targets approach gradually, and you need to hit them before they get too close, more points the further out you connect – set time limit vs. which team can withstand the longest.
– For smaller / enclosed spaces, in the event a regulation course is not feasible – targets potentially projected onto a wall / ceiling screen, incl. moving targets, w/ laser shot tracking technology.

Course design details:

– Designers are encouraged to add visual / audio dynamics, including potential themes such as dinosaurs / prehistoric, outer space / aliens, insects / gardening, pirates / nautical, haunted house / zombies, brand-name sponsors, incl. well known cartoons / cinema film franchise licensing.
– Lighting / sound effects to go along with the action, incl. screen displays for score / objectives.
– Targets / holes in some cases may be moving or opened / closed at different intervals.
– Not all holes are necessarily on ground level, incl. elevated platforms, multi-tiered greens, aerial targets, etc.
– Obstacles, such as a windmill, clock tower, animatronics (i.e., robotic animals eat the ball / knock it away), “ball captured” mechanism, incl. mole / gophers.
– No set size specifications, though each course should be built considering the how far average drives would travel at maximum, unless there is a planned “downhill” slope built in.  Jackpots need not be the furthest out to be challenging.  Different tee off points to accommodate junior/ senior / female players, accounting for respective driving distances; note – this will require careful shielding of any one in front of longer range players, similar to a baseball / batting cage, except with more narrow gaps.

You are welcome to submit additional modifications via one of our available outlets.  One notion is for modes outlined above to also be applied with equipment-types from other forms of the sport, with respective adjustments to dimensions and distance:
– Disc Golf (Flying Disc Sport)
– Footgolf (Soccer Ball from Traditional International Football)
– American Tackle Football (Punt, Pass, & Kick Contest)
– Tennis (Ball & Racquet Games)
– Basketball (Skill Shot Challenge)
– Target Shooting Gallery (Firearm / Rifle Range)

Calculations are requested to perform break-even analysis for such operations, for instance to determine the prize pool given price ranges, difficulty of the “jackpot,” operating expenses, etc..  In terms of the surface artificial turf would suffice for target / landing areas, though players should have the option to hit off natural grass, if possible.

Jurisdictions may prohibit cash payouts if they consider this a form of gambling.  Pinball houses have gotten around this by giving out gold, which winners take next door to exchange for currency (additional security needed).  Potentially regulators could consider having proceeds go to an “education lottery” fund, as states tend to allow gambling in that context.  Preferably expenses will be balanced out in that revenue covers just enough to sustain the operation / workers, so the highest percentage possible can be paid out to players.

References (Last Updated March 22, 2018):

United States Golf Association
Professional Golfers’ Association
International Golf Federation – History of Golf
USGA Museum – Golf History FAQ
PGA – Golf Instruction and Lessons
Golf Academy – Instruction
Golf Instruction Videos, Tips from Golf Magazine’s Top 100 Teachers
Golf Digest – Golf Instruction
Kids Health – Safety Tips: Golf
American Society of Golf Course Architects – Course Design
USGA – Building and Maintaining the Truly Affordable Golf Course
Building Golf Courses in China – An Illegal and Booming Industry – Business Week
– Topgolf Tour
World Minigolf Sport Federation
History of Miniature Golf – Bearings
Build a Miniature Golf Course in Your Backyard – Boys’ Life
How to Build a Miniature Golf Course – This Old House
National Building Museum’s Mini-Golf Course – Harder Than It Looks – ASLA
Patent US5758992 – Golf Ball Elevator
Patent US5632687 – Golf Ball Dispensing Apparatus
Patent US6398662 – Moving Practice Green and Ball Pickup Apparatus
Patent US5980391 – Ball Lift Assembly for Ball Return System of a Bowling Alley
Internet Pinball Database
International Flipper Pinball Association
The Professional & Amateur Pinball Association
The History of Pinball Machines and Pintables – BMI Gaming
Pinball History – Pennyarcade
Made How – Pinball
11 Things You Didn’t Know About Pinball History – Popular Mechanics
The Mayor Who Took a Sledgehammer to NYC’s Pinball Machines – The Atlantic
Oakland Finally Un-Banning Pinball – Time
The Campaign to Destroy Pinball – Pacific Pinball
Pachinko Planet – What is Pachinko?
Pachinko Gateway
Electronics Manual for Vintage Pachinko Machines
Taxing Times for Pachinko as Japan Considers Casino Gamble – Reuters
How Japan Casinos Could Save $187 Billion Pinball Pastime – Bloomberg
– Japan: Official Resigns Over Postquake Pinball – NY Times
– The Hole Story: A History of Skee-Ball – Mental Floss
Redemption Games – Primetime Amusements
Carnival Depot – Carnival Games
Scam Alert – 7 Rigged Carnival Games – AARP
Carnival Games You Should Play (or Skip) – MSN
Man Loses Life Savings Playing Carnival Game, Wins Giant Banana – Time
– Massachusetts Council on Compulsive Gambling
National Center for Responsible Gaming
American Gaming Association
History of Gambling in the United States – California State Library
Casino Operations Management – Gambling Info
Authority to License – Washington State Office of the Attorney General
– Legalized Games of Chance – New Jersey Division of Consumer Affairs
About Golf – What is a Hole-in-One Contest?
The Price is Right – Hole In One (Or Two)
John Daly Makes a Hole-in-One, Wins a Car – PGA
Mitch Hedberg: Fore! – Comedy Central Stand-Up
Range War: A Day in the Life of a Picker – Weekly Alibi
American Dad – Stan of Arabia – Fun Trivia
– Caddyshack – Warner Bros.
– Happy Gilmore – Universal Pictures
Kirby’s Dream Course – Nintendo
Worms Crazy Golf – Team 17
Peggle – Popcap Games
Labyrinth – Brio
– Boules Sport

Football International / Soccer

Posted July 23, 2014; Text On Page Last Edited April 18, 2018

Soccer (1)

Thank you for viewing soccer, which is usually referred to as football.  Calling the sport “football” does not tell the whole story, in that lots of goals are actually scored on “headers,” where a player hits the ball with one’s head.  Also, it is common for participants to receive a soccer ball traveling across upwards of half the field in the same fashion.  Recent studies have raised concerns about long-term effects of this activity on brain development.  Also, impact injuries can occur when more than one player attempts to “head” the ball at the same time.  As a result regulators of the sport allow headgear made of “soft, lightweight, padded material” to be worn.  Therefore, the development team of this presentation is advising all participants to equip the most substantial headgear available at all times, in addition to the customary shoes, shin guards, and athletic support.  Face masks are permitted as well, provided they involve no “parts extending out from the surface” nor “protruding elements,” which brings up an interesting point.

Soccer (2)

Equipping players’ helmets with strong face shields would give an advantage to the respective team, in terms of being able to strike and block the ball with the front of one’s face with less trepidation.  Otherwise, an individual’s natural reaction would be to orient his or her face away from the ball before impact, thereby reducing vision and reaction time in split-second scenarios.  Provided the equipment is in compliance with said regulations, teams are conceding an advantage to their opponent without doing so.  If you or your organization has developed the prototype helmet and face shield combination with verified safety ratings, please promote your product.  As a reminder padded helmets are already available and should be worn at all times during soccer, face protection notwithstanding.  If helmets are not provided to all players, leagues should consider to institute a policy where “heading” the ball is not allowed, which ties into our next topic.

Soccer (3)

As previously mentioned, much of the scoring in soccer takes place as a result of “headers.” If such actions are outlawed for safety reasons, multi-ball may help facilitate scoring.  The official amount of soccer balls in play will vary by league and team preference, though the limit is usually capped at the total number of players on the field.  This way, all soccer balls can be kicked off at the beginning of each half, and the goalkeeper has a limited amount of time to retrieve and clear after each goal.  The main adjustment would be in terms of set plays – with more than a single soccer ball on the field, it is not practical to stop the action for free kicks and penalty shots.  These occasions are instead handled with a similar approach to the “penalty box” in ice hockey, where infringing players end up in “timeout” for an established period of time, which varies based on the nature of the infraction.  As a notice one or more additional sideline officials will be necessary to retrieve any soccer ball out of bounds and set in place for throw-ins, corner kicks, and goal kicks, so participants are not leaving the playing field themselves.  If your league has established additional guidelines, please schedule a follow-up presentation at, and we look forward to your input.


On account of lower scoring in regular soccer, many elimination games are decided with penalty kicks, technically not the most suitable measure of combined offense and defense. Under this format the incentive becomes to play for a scoreless tie throughout regulation, if one team believes they are outmatched in terms of the actual game. Alternate systems under consideration:
– Compromise to introduce the multi-ball approach, only after some portion of overtime has elapsed, adding additional ball(s) after each interval to be determined (TBD).
– Instead of extra ball, remove off the field one player from each team at said interval. TBD: frequency for reducing the count; making available to the coach additional substitutions (may call for rosters to expand accordingly); minimum number of players upon which no longer decreased, likely not much beyond 3-on-3 plus goalkeeper, for comparison if an ice-hockey game begins their overtime period 5-on-5 then after intermission drops to 4-on-4 followed by 3-on-3 etc.
– Widen the goal-posts after each interval, providing an expanded scoring radius, custom build adjustable goals. TBD: amount of space increased each time; maximum total width. Along similar lines another option (not requiring new equipment) is to gradually place restrictions where the goalie is no longer allowed to touch ball with certain limbs, so the other team selects which arm or leg to ban then eventually onto other anatomical regions. More basic may be to continually reduce the area in which goalkeepers allowed to use hands.
– If persistent on some form of shootout, try with more players beyond one man against goalie. Why not have multiple members on offense begin with the ball around mid-field against equivalent defenders, stipulate different amounts of players during each round of the shootout (one of which may still be the traditional single); limited time of possession or their attempt also ends upon defense gaining possession of the ball.

References (Last Updated April 25, 2018):

Laws of the Game – FIFA
FIFA World Cup
– The Football Association Challenge Cup
– UEFA Champions League
– Beach Soccer Jam
– United States Soccer Federation – U.S. Soccer
– International Table Soccer Federation
– Rules – British Foosball Association
Frequent Soccer Ball Heading May Lead to Brain Injury – Yeshiva University
Evidence of Cognitive Dysfunction after Soccer Playing with Ball Heading – PLOS
Soccer and the Brain (Heading for Trouble?) – UW
Is Soccer Bad for Children’s Heads? – NAP
– Soccer Headgear and ASTM Product Performance – NFHS
FIFA 14 Patch Addresses Overpowered Headers and Finesse Shots – EGM Now
– Board of Governors OKs 3-on-3 OT, Coach’s Challenge – NHL
– College Football Overtime Rules – SI
Multi Ball Game – Top Soccer Drills
Multi Ball Game to Improve Soccer Thinking Skills – Better Soccer Coaching
Home Movies – Shout Factory TV

American Tackle Football

Script image posted February 19, 2015; text on page last updated May 20, 2017:

American Tackle Football (4)

Thank you for viewing this presentation of American Tackle Football, or “Football” as it is known in the nation in question; the name could be considered misleading in that case, since having the best kicker is no longer as much of a deciding factor.

American Tackle Football (2)

Traditionally three points are scored upon a successful field goal, where the ball is kicked through a goal post, located in the end zone.  Participation in “Rotisserie Draft Challenge” wagering games has called into question the option to award additional value, based on yardage of the kick, for instance four points on a field goal from beyond 40 yards and five for a successful 50 yard try.  Quality of competition in the sport itself has reached a level where field goal percentages are higher than before, to which some have suggested narrowing the goal posts, which ties into our next topic…

American Tackle Football (3)

Proposals have stated safety advantages if the sport could take place on a surface of snow at all times.  League commissioners have made clear the priority of preventing head injuries, and a sufficient amount of snow on field keeps players from running at top speeds, reducing the impact of collisions.  Concussions can occur in all forms of football when some one lands on the ground from the air, to which snow provides a softer landing surface.  Such injury concerns have forced leagues to diminish the kickoff phases of the game, when some of the most dangerous collisions occur, notably roughing the kicker.  Narrowing the goal post and adjusting the “extra point” also would not be necessary because the degree of difficulty to kick accurately is greater in these weather conditions.  If they sweep any snow out of the way before the kick, this may be treated as a “delay of game” penalty.

Not all regions naturally offer climate conditions needed to carry out this adjustment.  Some stadiums would require field level cooling as used in ice hockey.  Snow generators used with other winter sports can be moved in and installed on site, the product of which to be distributed by technological means or more practically at this time a sideline crew shoveling snow onto the field between plays.  Trials are requested to determine the optimum depth of snow to prevent injuries while not trading off too much mobility.  We are also requesting to develop guidelines for the process, in terms of how much additional snow production will be required to maintain the determined depth, accounting for a range of field level temperatures and melt off rates.  If you or your organization has performed calculations of this nature, please post your research.

Recently much of the focus concerned equipment, where the offense could gain an advantage by using a ball inflated outside the allowed range, and the offending team pays no penalty if found out.  What if they handled this similar to a “coach’s challenge,” where once or twice during the game coaches have the option to test their opponent’s ball in use, such as before a key play or if there is any suspicion; if the test determines it is above or below the acceptable level of inflation, they get to select one player from the opponent’s team to have ejected / disqualified for the remainder of the contest.  On the subject others have also made the case for a similar approach in the event of malicious conduct – otherwise a bench player from one team injures the opponent’s most valuable player with a cheap shot, and the trade off is in their favor to throw out some one who is barely on the field anyway.

Under the current circumstances, players of modern times largely will not experience the long-term health conditions found in publicized cases of former professionals. It was determined the damage is much greater when there is a cumulative effect of additional cranial injury when onset symptoms of one earlier are still present. Now that the dangers are known, participants at all levels are removed from action immediately upon any indication for concern, then held out for periods of multiple weeks until receiving medical clearance, whereas previously they could just tell the coach they wanted to go back in the game. Because of the studies from football, safety of all other sports has been improved applying the same principals. Our above discussion is evaluating options for the next level of protection; looking ahead it is also possible for the sport in the future to take place using military combat-suits, with on-field variables no longer being a factor, opening options for other types of terrain.

To follow up on today’s presentation you may visit or contact one of our public profiles, and thanks again for your participation.

References (Last Updated April 10, 2018):

International Federation of American Football
National Football League
Canadian Football League
– Legends Football League
USA Football
Pro Football Hall of Fame
Heads Up Football – USA Football
– Heads Up to Brain Injury Awareness – CDC Injury Center
– Traumatic Brain Injury – MedlinePlus
– Role of Subconcussion in Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury – NIH
– CTE in a National Football League Player – NIH
Pop Warner Health & Safety
– Girls’ Most Dangerous Sport: Cheerleading – Live Science
– Cheerleading Injuries in United States High Schools – AAP
– Cheerleading Injuries and Safety – NIH
– Cheerleading Ranks First in Catastrophic Sport Injuries – USSA
National Center for Catastrophic Sport Injury Research – UNC
Twelve School Football Players Die Each Year: Study – Reuters
– John Madden Thinks Kids Start Playing Football With Helmets Too Young – LA Times
Youth Football: Heat Stress and Injury Risk – American College of Sports Medicine
Heat Stroke Deaths in Football ‘All Preventable’ – Live Science
EPA GreenChill – Reports, Guidelines, and Tools
Understanding Recreational Ice Refrigeration – Athletic Business
The Trucks That Deliver Outdoor Hockey – New York Times
Lions vs. Eagles 2013 Snow Bowl – SB Nation
- What is Touchdown? – Clash Royale
- Mutant Football League