Category Archives: Webinars

Football International / Soccer

Posted July 23, 2014; Text On Page Last Edited April 18, 2018

Soccer (1)

Thank you for viewing soccer, which is usually referred to as football.  Calling the sport “football” does not tell the whole story, in that lots of goals are actually scored on “headers,” where a player hits the ball with one’s head.  Also, it is common for participants to receive a soccer ball traveling across upwards of half the field in the same fashion.  Recent studies have raised concerns about long-term effects of this activity on brain development.  Also, impact injuries can occur when more than one player attempts to “head” the ball at the same time.  As a result regulators of the sport allow headgear made of “soft, lightweight, padded material” to be worn.  Therefore, the development team of this presentation is advising all participants to equip the most substantial headgear available at all times, in addition to the customary shoes, shin guards, and athletic support.  Face masks are permitted as well, provided they involve no “parts extending out from the surface” nor “protruding elements,” which brings up an interesting point.

Soccer (2)

Equipping players’ helmets with strong face shields would give an advantage to the respective team, in terms of being able to strike and block the ball with the front of one’s face with less trepidation.  Otherwise, an individual’s natural reaction would be to orient his or her face away from the ball before impact, thereby reducing vision and reaction time in split-second scenarios.  Provided the equipment is in compliance with said regulations, teams are conceding an advantage to their opponent without doing so.  If you or your organization has developed the prototype helmet and face shield combination with verified safety ratings, please promote your product.  As a reminder padded helmets are already available and should be worn at all times during soccer, face protection notwithstanding.  If helmets are not provided to all players, leagues should consider to institute a policy where “heading” the ball is not allowed, which ties into our next topic.

Soccer (3)

As previously mentioned, much of the scoring in soccer takes place as a result of “headers.” If such actions are outlawed for safety reasons, multi-ball may help facilitate scoring.  The official amount of soccer balls in play will vary by league and team preference, though the limit is usually capped at the total number of players on the field.  This way, all soccer balls can be kicked off at the beginning of each half, and the goalkeeper has a limited amount of time to retrieve and clear after each goal.  The main adjustment would be in terms of set plays – with more than a single soccer ball on the field, it is not practical to stop the action for free kicks and penalty shots.  These occasions are instead handled with a similar approach to the “penalty box” in ice hockey, where infringing players end up in “timeout” for an established period of time, which varies based on the nature of the infraction.  As a notice one or more additional sideline officials will be necessary to retrieve any soccer ball out of bounds and set in place for throw-ins, corner kicks, and goal kicks, so participants are not leaving the playing field themselves.  If your league has established additional guidelines, please schedule a follow-up presentation at, and we look forward to your input.


On account of lower scoring in regular soccer, many elimination games are decided with penalty kicks, technically not the most suitable measure of combined offense and defense. Under this format the incentive becomes to play for a scoreless tie throughout regulation, if one team believes they are outmatched in terms of the actual game. Alternate systems under consideration:
– Compromise to introduce the multi-ball approach, only after some portion of overtime has elapsed, adding additional ball(s) after each interval to be determined (TBD).
– Instead of extra ball, remove off the field one player from each team at said interval. TBD: frequency for reducing the count; making available to the coach additional substitutions (may call for rosters to expand accordingly); minimum number of players upon which no longer decreased, likely not much beyond 3-on-3 plus goalkeeper, for comparison if an ice-hockey game begins their overtime period 5-on-5 then after intermission drops to 4-on-4 followed by 3-on-3 etc.
– Widen the goal-posts after each interval, providing an expanded scoring radius, custom build adjustable goals. TBD: amount of space increased each time; maximum total width. Along similar lines another option (not requiring new equipment) is to gradually place restrictions where the goalie is no longer allowed to touch ball with certain limbs, so the other team selects which arm or leg to ban then eventually onto other anatomical regions. More basic may be to continually reduce the area in which goalkeepers allowed to use hands.
– If persistent on some form of shootout, try with more players beyond one man against goalie. Why not have multiple members on offense begin with the ball around mid-field against equivalent defenders, stipulate different amounts of players during each round of the shootout (one of which may still be the traditional single); limited time of possession or their attempt also ends upon defense gaining possession of the ball.

References (Last Updated April 25, 2018):

Laws of the Game – FIFA
FIFA World Cup
– The Football Association Challenge Cup
– UEFA Champions League
– Beach Soccer Jam
– United States Soccer Federation – U.S. Soccer
– International Table Soccer Federation
– Rules – British Foosball Association
Frequent Soccer Ball Heading May Lead to Brain Injury – Yeshiva University
Evidence of Cognitive Dysfunction after Soccer Playing with Ball Heading – PLOS
Soccer and the Brain (Heading for Trouble?) – UW
Is Soccer Bad for Children’s Heads? – NAP
– Soccer Headgear and ASTM Product Performance – NFHS
FIFA 14 Patch Addresses Overpowered Headers and Finesse Shots – EGM Now
– Board of Governors OKs 3-on-3 OT, Coach’s Challenge – NHL
– College Football Overtime Rules – SI
Multi Ball Game – Top Soccer Drills
Multi Ball Game to Improve Soccer Thinking Skills – Better Soccer Coaching
Home Movies – Shout Factory TV

American Tackle Football

Script image posted February 19, 2015; text on page last updated May 20, 2017:

American Tackle Football (4)

Thank you for viewing this presentation of American Tackle Football, or “Football” as it is known in the nation in question; the name could be considered misleading in that case, since having the best kicker is no longer as much of a deciding factor.

American Tackle Football (2)

Traditionally three points are scored upon a successful field goal, where the ball is kicked through a goal post, located in the end zone.  Participation in “Rotisserie Draft Challenge” wagering games has called into question the option to award additional value, based on yardage of the kick, for instance four points on a field goal from beyond 40 yards and five for a successful 50 yard try.  Quality of competition in the sport itself has reached a level where field goal percentages are higher than before, to which some have suggested narrowing the goal posts, which ties into our next topic…

American Tackle Football (3)

Proposals have stated safety advantages if the sport could take place on a surface of snow at all times.  League commissioners have made clear the priority of preventing head injuries, and a sufficient amount of snow on field keeps players from running at top speeds, reducing the impact of collisions.  Concussions can occur in all forms of football when some one lands on the ground from the air, to which snow provides a softer landing surface.  Such injury concerns have forced leagues to diminish the kickoff phases of the game, when some of the most dangerous collisions occur, notably roughing the kicker.  Narrowing the goal post and adjusting the “extra point” also would not be necessary because the degree of difficulty to kick accurately is greater in these weather conditions.  If they sweep any snow out of the way before the kick, this may be treated as a “delay of game” penalty.

Not all regions naturally offer climate conditions needed to carry out this adjustment.  Some stadiums would require field level cooling as used in ice hockey.  Snow generators used with other winter sports can be moved in and installed on site, the product of which to be distributed by technological means or more practically at this time a sideline crew shoveling snow onto the field between plays.  Trials are requested to determine the optimum depth of snow to prevent injuries while not trading off too much mobility.  We are also requesting to develop guidelines for the process, in terms of how much additional snow production will be required to maintain the determined depth, accounting for a range of field level temperatures and melt off rates.  If you or your organization has performed calculations of this nature, please post your research.

Recently much of the focus concerned equipment, where the offense could gain an advantage by using a ball inflated outside the allowed range, and the offending team pays no penalty if found out.  What if they handled this similar to a “coach’s challenge,” where once or twice during the game coaches have the option to test their opponent’s ball in use, such as before a key play or if there is any suspicion; if the test determines it is above or below the acceptable level of inflation, they get to select one player from the opponent’s team to have ejected / disqualified for the remainder of the contest.  On the subject others have also made the case for a similar approach in the event of malicious conduct – otherwise a bench player from one team injures the opponent’s most valuable player with a cheap shot, and the trade off is in their favor to throw out some one who is barely on the field anyway.

Under the current circumstances, players of modern times largely will not experience the long-term health conditions found in publicized cases of former professionals. It was determined the damage is much greater when there is a cumulative effect of additional cranial injury when onset symptoms of one earlier are still present. Now that the dangers are known, participants at all levels are removed from action immediately upon any indication for concern, then held out for periods of multiple weeks until receiving medical clearance, whereas previously they could just tell the coach they wanted to go back in the game. Because of the studies from football, safety of all other sports has been improved applying the same principals. Our above discussion is evaluating options for the next level of protection; looking ahead it is also possible for the sport in the future to take place using military combat-suits, with on-field variables no longer being a factor, opening options for other types of terrain.

To follow up on today’s presentation you may visit or contact one of our public profiles, and thanks again for your participation.

References (Last Updated April 10, 2018):

International Federation of American Football
National Football League
Canadian Football League
– Legends Football League
USA Football
Pro Football Hall of Fame
Heads Up Football – USA Football
– Heads Up to Brain Injury Awareness – CDC Injury Center
– Traumatic Brain Injury – MedlinePlus
– Role of Subconcussion in Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury – NIH
– CTE in a National Football League Player – NIH
Pop Warner Health & Safety
– Girls’ Most Dangerous Sport: Cheerleading – Live Science
– Cheerleading Injuries in United States High Schools – AAP
– Cheerleading Injuries and Safety – NIH
– Cheerleading Ranks First in Catastrophic Sport Injuries – USSA
National Center for Catastrophic Sport Injury Research – UNC
Twelve School Football Players Die Each Year: Study – Reuters
– John Madden Thinks Kids Start Playing Football With Helmets Too Young – LA Times
Youth Football: Heat Stress and Injury Risk – American College of Sports Medicine
Heat Stroke Deaths in Football ‘All Preventable’ – Live Science
EPA GreenChill – Reports, Guidelines, and Tools
Understanding Recreational Ice Refrigeration – Athletic Business
The Trucks That Deliver Outdoor Hockey – New York Times
Lions vs. Eagles 2013 Snow Bowl – SB Nation
- What is Touchdown? – Clash Royale
- Mutant Football League


Script image posted February 19, 2015; text on page last updated December 24, 2015:

Basketball (6)

Welcome to today’s presentation from, on the sport of Basketball.  The object of the game is for one team to score more points than its opponent, by throwing the ball into an elevated goal.

Basketball (2)

Points per goal range from one to three, based on where the ball was thrown in from, with three awarded for a successful attempt beyond a specified distance, known as the three point line.  One focus is the notion to consider expanding this principal.

Basketball (3)

Teams could be awarded additional points for connecting from beyond half court, for instance scoring five on this shot, instead of three.  Also, a goal scored from beyond the opponent’s three point line may receive, let’s say, seven total points.  Calculations are requested to confirm these amounts provide optimum results, five and seven points respectively.  This process involves running sufficient simulations to evaluate the outcome.  If deemed preferable to not have modified scoring active throughout, there could also be a formula to bring into effect only after one team trails by a certain margin of points, based on the amount of time remaining in regulation (lower margin needed for activation when less time remaining).  If you or your organization has conducted such calculations, please present your research.  The additional field goal lines provide coaches and players with more options, late in games in particular, which ties into our next topic.

Basketball (4)

When the defense commits a foul, on the floor, one could make a case the other team should be allowed to continue the play, and if they would rather keep the result of the play, then the penalty is declined.  Instead of whistling upon the infraction, an official would raise his arm, or a flag, until the play in progress is resolved.  Examples of this concept include a delayed penalty during ice hockey or “holding” in American tackle football; in these instances the team which gets fouled is not made to stop the play, if unfolding in their favor.  With basketball, often the incentive is for the defense to foul, so they can reset their formation.  Towards the end of a game, with one team trailing by multiple possessions, the result is for them to repeatedly foul their opponent.  The trailing coach would generally prefer to not resort to this option, so the “delayed penalty” provides an alternate approach.  In order to narrow a large deficit, teams would instead be encouraged to attempt a “home run” play, the five or seven point, half or three quarters’ court shot.  Notice – implementing the “delayed penalty” is advised only in the case of a defensive foul, committed on the floor, as players are more likely to be injured in the air, shooting or going for a loose ball.  The main objective is to prevent pacing problems late in games.  If your league has incorporated these adjustments, please post your results.

Also work in progress for a section regarding a request for additional goals (optional):

Basketball - Goal1

References (Last Updated January 08, 2016):

International Basketball Federation
National Basketball Association
Street Basketball Association
Naismith Museum
Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame
International Association of Approved Basketball Officials
USA Basketball – National Governing Body for Basketball in the United States
Wikipedia – Forms of Basketball
Basketball Coaching 101 – Basketball Drills
Hoopskills – Basketball Training Articles
10 Basketball Drills Every Player Should Master
5 Free Throw Drills for Your Players – Basketball For Coaches
New York Times – Despite Slowing the Game, Fouling as a Strategy Is Defended
Grantland – Rediscovering Rock N’ Jock
The Oral History of MTV’s Rock N’ Jock
Harlem Globetrotters
AND 1 – Team Page
The Legendary Shots
Dude Perfect
Basketball Player’s Shooting Skills at Taiwan Arcade
Basketball Arcade Games – Indoor Basketball Games
List of Basketball Video Games
See How 1993’s NBA Jam was Made
NBA Jam Arcade Roster Evaluation